Besides the board level MIPI camera, Pretty much the world of webcams is totally open to you as a starting point :).
Also you could try the industrial cameras like the Basler Dart or those from IDS.
The pi cam and webcams have the convinience of pre-build community supported libraries, so this is probably the fastest route.
As for the industrial cameras, most of these vendors supply their own SDK/API's in various languages.
As a tip, I'd prototype with the easiest possible route and see how far that goes. Knowing that will really help narrow down the selection of the hundreds of other cameras later on :).
2016-11-15 19:27:23 UTC mattb - 88 points